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Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: A Guide for Science Literacy


The National Science Education Standards (NSES) identify investigation and experimentation as two of the key processes for students in science literacy (NRC, 1996). Inquiry-based learning is widely recognized as an effective approach to teaching these processes. The Planning and Carrying Out Investigations (PCOI) guide is designed to help teachers infuse inquiry-based learning into their classrooms. The PCOI guide provides an overview of inquiry-based learning, teacher tips for planning and carrying out investigations, and inquiry-based science activities that can be used in the classroom.

Why is it important to investigate?

When we investigate, we are trying to find answers to questions. We want to understand what happened, and why it happened. We want to know if something is true, and if it is, how we can be sure.

Investigating is important because it helps us to build knowledge. It allows us to make decisions based on evidence, rather than on assumptions. And it helps us to solve problems more effectively.

So next time you're faced with a question, don't be afraid to investigate. It might just help you find the answer you're looking for.

The scientific method

The scientific method is a series of steps used by scientists to determine whether a hypothesis is supported by evidence. The steps of the scientific method are:

1. Make an observation.

2. Form a hypothesis.

3. Test the hypothesis.

4. Analyze the results and draw a conclusion.

5. Publish the results.

The scientific method is an important tool used by scientists to ensure that their findings are accurate and reliable. If you're interested in learning more about the scientific method, we suggest checking out our article on the topic.

Planning your investigation

It is important to approach an investigation with a clear plan in mind. By taking the time to properly plan your investigation, you can ensure that all the key information is collected and that the investigation is conducted in a thorough and efficient manner.

There are a few key things to keep in mind when planning an investigation:

* Define the scope of the investigation - What are you trying to learn?

* Identify the key stakeholders - who is involved?

* Develop a timeline - how long do you have to conduct the investigation?

* Gather all relevant information - what data do you need to collect?

* Draft a plan of action - what steps will you take to conduct the investigation?

By taking the time to plan your investigation thoroughly, you can help ensure that it is conducted in a way that is both efficient and effective.

Carrying out your investigation

As you carry out your investigation, there are a few things to keep in mind in order to ensure success. First, it is important to clearly define your goals and objectives. What is it that you hope to accomplish through your investigation? Once you know your goals, you can then develop a plan of action. This should include everything from who you will interview to what resources you will need.

It is also important to remain impartial throughout your investigation. This means avoiding biases and preconceptions that could color your findings. Additionally, you must be willing to follow the evidence wherever it leads, even if it contradicts your original hypotheses.

By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your investigation is thorough, objective, and successful.

Analyzing your data

As a researcher, part of your job is to communicate your findings to the general public. But in order to do that effectively, you first need to be able to analyze your data in a way that everyone can understand.

Luckily, there are a few steps you can take to make sure your data is accessible to everyone. Here are a few tips for analyzing your data for science literacy:

- Use clear and concise language: Avoid technical jargon and terms that only experts would know. Stick to plain language that everyone can understand.

- Use data visualizations: Graphs, charts, and other visualizations can help make complex data more understandable.

- Tell a story: Whenever possible, try to tell a story with your data. This will help people connect with your findings and remember them later.

Reporting your findings

It is essential that findings from scientific and engineering research are communicated effectively to non-experts. This is true whether the findings are presented in policy documents, the popular press, or simply to friends and family. The following tips will help you communicate your findings clearly and effectively.

-Choose an appropriate level of detail. When communicating your findings to non-experts, it is important to strike the right balance between too much and too little detail. If you provide too much detail, your audience may become overwhelmed and tune out. On the other hand, if you don’t provide enough detail, your audience may not be able to understand your findings.

-Use clear and concise language. When communicating your findings, use language that is easy to understand. Avoid jargon and technical terms whenever possible.

-Be patient. When communicating your findings

In conclusion, this guide has detailed how important it is for science students to understand and be able to carry out investigations. This practice is a key science and engineering practice that helps students develop skills in areas such as data gathering, analysis, and interpretation. By carrying out investigations, students learn how to ask questions and solve problems, which are important skills for science literacy. Parents should be informed of the investigations their children are carrying out in school so

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Appendix F Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS - FINAL 060513
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